It is perhaps more elegantly summarised by Rich Karlgaard and Michael Malone, who examined the research for their book Team Genius: The most successful teams exhibit diversity in their ranks, but [diverse] teams face serious structural challenges regarding motivation, integration, and co-ordination.
里奇.卡尔加德(Rich Karlgaard)和迈克尔.马隆(Michael Malone)所作的总结或许更为精辟，俩人为撰写《团队天才》(Team Genius)一书开展了相关研究，他们认为：最成功的团队表现出成员多样性，但（多样化）团队面临着与积极性、融合和协调相关的重大结构性挑战。
The process of assembling, running and developing a team is difficult enough without the additional obstacles thrown up by diversity.
The temptation for team leaders is always to look for ways to reduce any friction that might hamper progress towards a collective goal.
So how should managers strike the balance?
The first step is to understand when a diverse team works better than a more homogeneous group.
Unsurprisingly, a diverse team will be better placed to devise and sell products to a similarly diverse group of customers.
A survey for the New York-based Center for Talent Innovation looked at public companies that had two-dimensional diversity — that is, by race, gender, sexuality or other inherent traits on the one hand and acquired diversity, such as language skills or a global mindset on the other.
一项为总部位于纽约的人才创新中心(Center for Talent Innovation)所做的调查着眼于具备二维多样性的上市公司，这类公司的职员不仅在种族、性别或其他遗传特点方面存在多样性，而且还具备后天多样性，例如语言技能或国际化思维等方面。
The survey found employees at 2D companies were 70 per cent more likely to report capturing a new market in the past year than those at less diverse companies.
More broadly, diverse teams can outperform even star performers from similar backgrounds because of the power of collective intelligence.
identified by researcher Anita Williams Woolley at Carnegie Mellon University and others.
卡内基梅隆大学(Carnegie Mellon University)研究员阿妮塔.威廉姆斯.伍利(Anita Williams Woolley)和其他研究员发现了这点。
Collective intelligence turns out to trump the average intelligence of individual team members and is enhanced by the presence of more women in a group, whose social sensitivity helps the team cohere.
On the other hand, teams from similar backgrounds or of the same gender perform better at tasks that involve implementing existing solutions.
In her new book What Works, Iris Bohnet, the author and behavioural economist, includes a cheat sheet — based on classroom discussion on how to form effective groups — that starts with the insight that if a task involves co-ordination, say the provision of a public good like clean water or better healthcare, homogeneous groups can be helpful.
行为经济学家艾里斯.博内特(Iris Bohnet)新书《What Works》中加了一条备忘录（基于就如何组建高效率团队的课堂讨论），其开头就提出一条观点：如果一项任务需要协调，例如提供洁净水或更好医疗服务之类的公共品，同质化团体可能很管用。
If the team is solving individual problems, she advises, take account of the influence of different groups.
So, for instance, boys benefit if they are in a class with an over-representation of girls, who are more likely to apply themselves and less likely to disrupt the lesson.
Conversely, collective problem-solving can require a heterogenous group, Ms Bohnet writes, with women often providing vital listening and bridge-building skills.
Her caveat: mixed teams work only when a critical mass of the minority is present — perhaps making up at least a third of the group.
If you start out with a population of, say, 20 per cent men and 80 per cent women and then want to create work teams, do not allocate people proportionally, she writes.
Instead, form a few balanced teams and assign the rest of the women to all-female groups.
Such design problems are hard to correct in large organisations.
The CTI research on 2D diversity and innovation found that even when diverse teams came up with innovative ideas and products, they were often stifled by more homogeneous groups that persisted higher up in the organisation.
If this were not complicated enough, emerging research suggests that even these established studies of diverse teams may have been skewed by our inability to assess diversity accurately.
Participants in an experiment run by Stanford researchers judged their team was more gender-diverse if its members were wearing different coloured T-shirts.
The catch was that all the teams had the same male-female mix.
This matters, because a manager who thinks for the wrong reasons that his or her team has differing skills, attitudes and backgrounds, may assign it a collective or creative task that it is ill-equipped to carry out.
Even those who advocate a more gender-balanced workforce suggest that team formation will involve a trade-off between tension among members and improved performance.
Mr Karlgaard and Mr Malone refer to the cost-benefit analysis team leaders need to make as they try to enhance teams while avoiding the risk of friction.
In the same vein, Ms Bohnet writes that for gender diversity to increase group performance, you need team members whose different perspectives add value while keeping the cost of co-ordination as low as possible.
What seems clear is that as teams become more diverse, and more willing therefore to express their sometimes conflicting views, organisations will need to develop better, more active, more sensitive managers to run them.